According to 49 USCS § 32101 [Title 49. Transportation; Subtitle VI. Motor Vehicle And Driver Programs; Part C. Information, Standards, and Requirements; Chapter 321. General] the term "bumper standard" means "a minimum performance standard that substantially reduces--
(A) the damage to the front or rear end of a passenger motor vehicle from a low-speed collision (including a collision with a fixed barrier) or from towing the vehicle; or
(B) the cost of repairing the damage."