Paulian action is a term of Roman law. It refers to a claim made by a creditor against a third party to rescind any transfer of property made to the third party by the debtor done to frustrate enforcement of the creditor's debt.
The following is an example of a caselaw discussing the term:
A debtor has several creditors. He alienates some of his property and since he has the title, he transfers the title to the grantees. The creditors, who have taken possession of the debtor's property under a judgment of a magistrate, may bring an action against the holder of the alienated property, since the alienation is in fraud of them. This action is called the 'Paulian action.' [Murray v. Stacy Trust (In re Goldberg), 277 B.R. 251, 271 (Bankr. M.D. La. 2002)]