A deed is the written document which transfers title (ownership) or an interest in real property to another person. The deed must describe the real property, name the party transferring the property (grantor), the party receiving the property (grantee) and be signed and notarized by the grantor. To complete the transfer (conveyance) the deed must be recorded in the office of the County Recorder or Recorder of Deeds. There are two basic types of deeds: a warranty deed, which guarantees that the grantor owns title, and the quitclaim deed, which transfers only that interest in the real property which the grantor actually has.
If a deed is intended to be a general warranty deed, it should contain a phase specified by state law such as the phrase "conveys and warrants". These words, called operative words of conveyance, carry with them several warranties which the grantor is making to the grantee. Examples of the warranties are:
First, the grantor warrants that the grantor is the lawful owner of the property at the time the deed is made and delivered and that the grantor has the right to convey the property.
Second, the grantor warrants that the property is free from all encumbrances or liens.
Third, the grantor warrants that he or she will defend title to the estate so that the grantee and the grantee's heirs and assigns may enjoy quiet and peaceable possession of the premises with the power to convey the property.
In contrast to a general warranty deed, a special warranty deed limits the liability of the grantor by warranting only what the deed explicitly states. A special warranty deed has practically the same effect as a quitclaim deed. Special warranty deeds are generally used by corporations or other entities that want to avoid assuming the liability of a general warranty deed. Like the general warranty deed, the special warranty deed should contain the appropriate language such as "conveys and specially warrants." Usually, the grantor warrants that he or she did nothing to impair title during the period the grantor held the title. While a special warranty deed may contain covenants of title, these covenants will usually cover only those claims arising by, through, or under the grantor.