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Adjoining landowners are owners of land who share common boundaries and have mutual rights, duties, and liabilities. Common law recognizes the reciprocal rights and obligations of adjoining landowners. However, the reciprocal rights were modified by various state laws and court decisions. Usually, adjoining landowners are expected to use their property reasonably without undue interference with the rights of the owners of adjacent land. Any action that appropriates adjoining land or substantially deprives an adjoining owner of the reasonable enjoyment of his/her property is an unlawful use of one’s property. Adjoining owners have the right to grade or change the level of their land or to build foundations or embankments so as long as proper precautions are taken, such as building a retaining wall to prevent soil from spilling upon adjoining land.