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An arbitral tribunal is a tribunal constituted for resolving a dispute by way of arbitration. It can consist of either a sole arbitrator or two or more arbitrators. An arbitral tribunal consisting of two or more arbitrators shall have a chairman or an umpire. The parties to a dispute are free to decide the composition of the tribunal. They can agree on the number of arbitrators. Where an arbitration clause of a legal system provides for two or any other even number of arbitrators, then the appointed arbitrators will select an additional arbitrator as a chairman of the tribunal to avoid deadlock that arises in reaching a decision.
Arbitral tribunal is constituted in an ad hoc arbitration proceedings and institutional arbitration proceedings.
The following is an example of a state law ( California) defining arbitral tribunal :
According to Cal Code Civ Proc § 1297.21 (b) an arbitral tribunal means a sole arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators.