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Capabilities-based planning is a class of all-hazards planning. It addresses the under conditions of uncertainty and the growing uncertainty in the threat environment by using a wide range of possible scenarios. It tries to bound requirements capabilities suitable for a wide range of threats and hazards, within an economic framework that necessitates prioritization and choice. Further, capabilities–based planning is a component of the National Preparedness Goal resulting from Homeland Security Presidential Directive-8. Examples of the 36 capabilities that are identified so far include critical infrastructure protection; mass prophylaxis; volunteer management and donations; emergency operations center management; fatality management; citizen preparedness and participation, and citizen protection, evacuation and/or in-place protection. Every entity at the federal, state, and local levels is not expected to develop and maintain every capability to the same level. Elements of each capability include personnel, planning, organization leadership, equipment and systems, training, and exercises.