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Case definition means a set of criteria for determining whether a person has a particular disease or health-related condition, by fixing clinical criteria and limitations on time, place, and person. The foundation of case definition can be clinical, laboratory, or combined clinical and laboratory criteria or a scoring system. The case definition is based on that which is most strange about the disease cluster under investigation. The choice of a case definition depends on the information at hand. Case definitions can be applied for epidemiologic surveillance studies referring to prevalence of a disease, and for diagnostic purposes using applicable diagnostic features, causes, and pathophysiology.