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A quota system, in the employment context, is a hiring system that gives preference to protected group members. Quota systems are designed to correct adverse impact, resulting from employment practices that appear neutral but have a discriminatory effect on a protected group.
Quota systems are also used in immigration law to ensure that only a certain number of non-citizens become legal permanent residents every year. Quota systems used by universities for student admissions have been a controversial legal topic, which critics have claimed result in reverse discrimination. Such racial quota systems have been declared unconstitutional.