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In adoption law, many states allow a birth mother to ask to vacate a voluntary relinquishment and the decree of termination of parental rights, restoring their parental rights and duties and entering an order regarding the custody of the child. If such a petition isn't timely filed by the birth mother, the child may be adopted by another individual without additional notice to the birth mother. State laws vary, so local laws should be consulted for specific requirements in your area.
Restoring parents rights is also raised under the topics of parents' rights to make medical decisions for their children who are required to be vaccinated under state law or seek abortions. Another context in which restoring parents' rights arises is where a child is removed from the home by the state. Constitutional due process guarantees require notice and hearing before parental rights may be terminated.